Bioengineering and Metabolic Engineering
Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is used extensively as an anticoagulant. It consists of repeating disaccharide units, containing iduronic acid (or glucuronic acid) and glucosamine, exhibiting variable degrees of sulfation. Heparin, and its analogues, are used during surgery and dialysis, and are often used to coat indwelling catheters and other devices where the vascular system is exposed.
Carbohydrate Analysis and Structural Biology

Proteoglycans (PGs) and their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains play a prominent role in a biological system. PGs are among the most structurally complex of the glycoconjugates and are involved in signaling and cell-cell interaction.

Glycobiology and Glycomics

Glycomics is a field that is a logical offshoot of the fields of genomics and proteomics and is considered as a sub-discipline of metabolomics.

NanoBiotechnology and Nano-scale and Micron-scale Devices

Nano-biotechnology is a new field, lying at the convergence of biotechnology and nanotechnology, which integrates biomaterials and synthetic materials to prepare novel nano-scale and micron-scale materials, devices and processes.

Synthetic Carbohydrate Chemistryv
Uridine diphosphate (UDP) monosaccharides are common donors being transferred to glycosyl acceptors by a glycosyltransferase or synthase in the biosynthetic pathway. Unnatural UDP-sugars, which are otherwise not synthesized in vivo, harness great potential as enzymatic substrates for carbohydrate synthesis, as enzyme inhibitors, as tools for assay development and for the study of glycoconjugate biosynthesis.
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